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Earth Chgs A new supervolcano is brewing under Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire
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  1. #1
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    A new supervolcano is brewing under Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire

    www.news.com.au/technology/science/us-geologists-have-been-surprised-to-find-a-huge-magma-blob-under-massachusetts-vermont-and-new-hampshire/news-story/dd685195a0a0e451258ff9b395c789da[/url]

    US geologists have been surprised to find a huge magma blob under Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire

    JUNE 25, 2018

    The Supervolcanoes that could kill us all

    Staff writers
    News Corp Australia Network
    SOMETHING unexpected has been gradually making itself known to geologists in the United States. A huge mass of molten rock is creeping upwards beneath the nation’s north eastern states.

    “The upwelling we detected is like a hot-air balloon, and we infer that something is rising up through the deeper part of our planet under New England,” says Rutgers University geophysicist Professor Vadim Levin.

    Traces of the brooding mass only became evident through a large-scale new seismic study.

    A Google Earth view showing Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, under which an unexpected large blob of molten magma has been detected.Source:Supplied


    The idea that there may be a super volcano brewing under Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire is something of a surprise.

    “Our study challenges the established notion of how the continents on which we live behave,” Professor Levin says. “It challenges the textbook concepts taught in introductory geology classes.”

    RELATED: New supervolcano lava dome found near Japan

    The region is geologically stable. There are no active volcanoes.

    So the massive magma build-up must be a relatively recent event.




    But, in the timescale of Earth’s geological processes, this still means tens of millions of years.

    “It will likely take millions of years for the upwelling to get where it’s going,” Professor Levin explains. “The next step is to try to understand how exactly it’s happenin

    Something strange had been noted about the region earlier. Somewhere down there was an anomaly hundreds of degrees Celsius hotter than its surroundings.

    The warm colours indicate lower mantle flow speeds, implying that rock in those regions is less dense, likely warmer and rising toward the surface. The key finding is that mantle flow indicators are smallest above the warm region, likely because warmer rock flows upward and disrupts the horizontal flow. Image: Vadim Levin/Rutgers University-New Brunswick
    The warm colours indicate lower mantle flow speeds, implying that rock in those regions is less dense, likely warmer and rising toward the surface. The key finding is that mantle flow indicators are smallest above the warm region, likely because warmer rock flows upward and disrupts the horizontal flow. Image: Vadim Levin/Rutgers University-New BrunswickSource:Supplied


    The new study has helped identify the molten blob as being centred under Vermont, with parts of western New Hampshire and western Massachusets also within its embrace.

    “It is not Yellowstone-like, but it’s a distant relative,” Professor Levin says.

    As to whether-or-not the magma bubble will eventually eek its way to the surface is unknown.

    “Maybe it didn’t have time yet, or maybe it is too small and will never make it,” Professor Levin told National Geographic.

    “Come back in 50 million years, and we’ll see what happens.”


    Geologists in the United States have discovered a huge upwelling of magma beneath the states of Vermont and Massachusets. Picture: istockSource:istock

  2. #2
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    article from link in OP

    A new supervolcano is brewing under Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire
    news.com.au






    http://a57.foxnews.com/images.foxnew....jpg?ve=1&tl=1

    A Google Earth view showing Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, under which an unexpected large blob of molten magma has been detected. (Credit: Google Earth, News.com.au)

    Something unexpected has been gradually making itself known to geologists in the United States. A huge mass of molten rock is creeping upwards beneath the nation’s north eastern states.

    “The upwelling we detected is like a hot-air balloon, and we infer that something is rising up through the deeper part of our planet under New England,” says Rutgers University geophysicist Professor Vadim Levin.

    Traces of the brooding mass only became evident through a large-scale new seismic study.

    The idea that there may be a super volcano brewing under Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire is something of a surprise.

    “Our study challenges the established notion of how the continents on which we live behave,” Professor Levin says. “It challenges the textbook concepts taught in introductory geology classes.”

    The region is geologically stable. There are no active volcanoes.

    So the massive magma build-up must be a relatively recent event.

    But, in the timescale of Earth’s geological processes, this still means tens of millions of years.

    “It will likely take millions of years for the upwelling to get where it’s going,” Professor Levin explains. “The next step is to try to understand how exactly it’s happening.”

    Something strange had been noted about the region earlier. Somewhere down there was an anomaly hundreds of degrees Celsius hotter than its surroundings.

    The new study has helped identify the molten blob as being centred under Vermont, with parts of western New Hampshire and western Massachusets also within its embrace.

    “It is not Yellowstone-like, but it’s a distant relative,” Professor Levin says.

    As to whether-or-not the magma bubble will eventually eek its way to the surface is unknown.

    “Maybe it didn’t have time yet, or maybe it is too small and will never make it,” Professor Levin told National Geographic.

    “Come back in 50 million years, and we’ll see what happens.”

    This story originally appeared in news.com.au.
    Nana to two "little bits", one not-so-little "little bit" and one 6' college bound "little bit"

  3. #3
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    If this blows it is the Fury pits of HELL

  4. #4
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    The warm colours indicate lower mantle flow speeds, implying that rock in those regions is less dense, likely warmer and rising toward the surface. The key finding is that mantle flow indicators are smallest above the warm region, likely because warmer rock flows upward and disrupts the horizontal flow. Image: Vadim Levin/Rutgers University-New BrunswickSource:Supplied
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    http://www.news.com.au/technology/en...cbb74ed8796960

    FEBRUARY 13, 2018
    Play Video
    The Supervolcanoes that could kill us all


    Jamie SeidelNews Corp Australia Network
    SUPERVOLCANOS are scary.

    They don’t work like other volcanoes. They’re huge — but thin — patches of the Earth’s crust.

    When the enormous mass of lava burbling beneath bursts through to the surface, they can change the planet.


    They already have. Several times.

    Yellowstone National Park is the most publicised beast. There’s another under Naples, Italy.

    But one positioned in the ocean off southern Japan is only now being understood by science.

    A research paper published in Nature Scientific Reports states a lava dome is expanding within the Kikai Caldera.

    Here Kikai caldera Inner and outer caldera rims are shown by solid lines. Several intrusions (yellow) are distributed along the caldera rims. Dredge (yellow diamond), ROV diving (blue diamonds), and scuba diving (yellow triangles) points are also shown. Map: Scientific Reports
    Here Kikai caldera Inner and outer caldera rims are shown by solid lines. Several intrusions (yellow) are distributed along the caldera rims. Dredge (yellow diamond), ROV diving (blue diamonds), and scuba diving (yellow triangles) points are also shown. Map: Scientific ReportsSource:Supplied


    This is just 50km south of Kyushu — Japan’s most southerly main island.

    The dome itself is 9.5km wide. The seabed has been forced upwards some 610 meters by more than 31 cubic kilometres of lava.

    Its peak sits just 30m beneath the ocean waves.

    But the dome is not in itself a problem.

    It’s what it represents.

    It means a vastly bigger crucible of magma below has begun building up pressure once again.

    If it bursts, researchers say it could kill some 100 million people.

    The location of the Kikai Caldera in relation to the main islands of southern Japan. Some 100 million people live within its fallout zone. A) Kikai Caldera. B) Nagasaki. C) Hiroshima. D) Osaka. Picture: Google Maps
    The location of the Kikai Caldera in relation to the main islands of southern Japan. Some 100 million people live within its fallout zone. A) Kikai Caldera. B) Nagasaki. C) Hiroshima. D) Osaka. Picture: Google MapsSource:Supplied


    HISTORIC TERROR

    Kikai has exploded before. Japanese volcanologists have found ample evidence of an eruption of 500 cubic kilometres of magma some 7000 years ago.

    There is evidence of another super-eruption about 95,000 years ago. And another some 140,000 years.

    Where it’s at now, volcanologist Yoshiyuki Tatsumi says there is about a 1 per cent chance of a “catastrophic” eruption within 100 years.

    Three surveys have conducted sonar, submersible and seismic mapping of the site to get a picture of what is going on down below.

    Another is scheduled for next month.

    Topographical maps showing post-caldera sediment cover layers, ejecta from old eruptions and the new central lava dome. Picture: Scientific Reports
    Topographical maps showing post-caldera sediment cover layers, ejecta from old eruptions and the new central lava dome. Picture: Scientific ReportsSource:Supplied


    “The lava dome is chemically different from the super-eruption, suggesting that a new magma supply system had been developed after 7,300 years ago,” Tatsumi told The New York Times.

    This means the supervolcano has found a new and different source of magma.

    “The post-caldera activity is regarded as the preparation stage to the next super-eruption,” Tatsumi told Live Science, “not as the calming-down stage from the previous super-eruption.”

    Amid the evidence for this are active hydrothermal springs and dense streams of gas bubbling up from the sea bed.

    But evidence of life is not evidence of an impending mega eruption.

    Lava at the surface of the central dome. The surface of lava dome consists of rhyolite blocks with water-chilled, tortoiseshell contraction cracks (b) and pillow lobe structures. A photograph (a) was supplied from NHK. Source: Scientific Reports
    Lava at the surface of the central dome. The surface of lava dome consists of rhyolite blocks with water-chilled, tortoiseshell contraction cracks (b) and pillow lobe structures. A photograph (a) was supplied from NHK. Source: Scientific ReportsSource:Supplied


    LOOKING AHEAD

    The lava dome is a sign. But not a portent of doom.

    But if it was to burst, the resulting eruption of steam and gas would have a serious effect on the global climate. Temperatures would plunge by several degrees. Crops would fail. The weather would go wild.

    Exactly how far down the track of this terrible fate Kikai has travelled is hoped to be determined next month.

    A new survey involving seismic and electromagnetic sensors will combine with underwater robots to clarify exactly what shape the caldera is in — and thereby hopefully exposing what forces are at play.

    Researchers also hope to form a picture of the underground magma reservoir to a depth of 30km.

    Based on these results, they hope to refine expectations for when the next eruption is due.

    Lava flows down the slopes of Mayon volcano as it erupts anew, as seen from Legazpi city, Albay province around 340 kilometres southeast of Manila, Philippines. Kikai could push out 31 cubic kilometres of lava.(AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)
    Lava flows down the slopes of Mayon volcano as it erupts anew, as seen from Legazpi city, Albay province around 340 kilometres southeast of Manila, Philippines. Kikai could push out 31 cubic kilometres of lava.(AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)Source:AP



    Lava from Kilauea volcano enters the ocean on Big Island, Hawaii. A lava surge beneath the ocean could cause a massive explosion in contact with the water. Picture: IstockSource:istock
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  6. #6
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    Quote Originally Posted by NC Susan View Post
    The region is geologically stable. There are no active volcanoes.
    Just because there are no active volcanoes does not mean the region is "geologically stable." They have earthquakes there (albeit usually not bigger than 5.0-6.0's) that irregularly come as a surprise to the population. The last time I pointed this out several people on the forum roundly pooh-poohed me, then less than a year later (in June 2010) they had a 5.3 earthquake in the Ontario-Quebec border area. The planet's crust is so relatively thin that pretty much the entire planetary surface is potentially geologically active in one form or another.

  7. #7
    https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-...t-coast-cities

    Solar Storms Present Danger Of Blackouts For Major East Coast Cities

    Authored by Mac Slavo via SHTFplan.com,

    The largest solar storm in recent history struck in 1859 and the auroras could be seen across the globe. But a solar storm of that magnitude today would cause devastating blackouts in major cities on the East Coast of the United States.

    An upcoming report from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) warns that a region of the Eastern Seaboard will be particularly vulnerable to devastating blackouts in the event of a solar storm thanks to the rocks beneath the surface. It’s widely believed that the type of geomagnetic storm capable of wiping out the grid happens once every century, but a worst-case scenario might result in widespread blackouts that could last for months, the Space Weather Prediction Center told Bloomberg.

    According to Bloomberg, the soon-to-be-released report found a 300-million-year-old rock beneath the surface of the Eastern Seaboard could amplify the next big solar storm from Washington D.C. all the way to Maine. The makeup of this rock wouldn’t allow the solar energy to go through it and would instead ricochet it back up to the surface, doubling the impacts in this region, the report also said.

    But that isn’t the only problem facing those who live on the East Coast.

    According to USGS research geophysicist and study lead author Jeffrey Love, the Eastern Seaboard is at risk for blackouts not only due to its abundance of insulating rocks but also due to the region’s proximity to the North Pole, where intense solar activity is most likely to strike.

    “It’s an active problem that a lot of people are trying to solve and understand,” Space Weather Prediction Center scientist Christopher Balch told Bloomberg, according to The Weather Channel.

    Love told Bloomberg that the new report is particularly important because the mid-Atlantic and Northeast hadn’t been previously studied in-depth with regards to how its geology would impact solar storms. Only the central U.S. was studied in this way, he added. Prior to this more recent study, the central United States was the main focus of solar storm risk assessments, and the threat to the Eastern Seaboard was not yet known.

    A study in 2016 reported that the upper Midwest is the region that faces the highest threat from a geomagnetic storm. The researchers found that surges could be up to 100 times more powerful in northern Minnesota and Wisconsin compared to other areas of the United States, reported Earth.com.

    The research from the USGS will be used to develop tests to measure how resilient the nation’s power grids are to solar storms, which is required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    The best way to prepare for a blackout is to have some extra water and food stored just in case. You could also consider some heavy blankets in case the grid goes down in winter and keeping lanterns or candles on hand.

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  8. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by 1eagle View Post
    The largest solar storm in recent history struck in 1859 ...
    Just so folks know, the Carrington Event was by no means the last major solar storm to hit Earth and have a significant impact on the electrical infrastructure, and it also wasn't the largest so far uncovered.

  9. #9
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    Quote Originally Posted by tanstaafl View Post
    Just so folks know, the Carrington Event was by no means the last major solar storm to hit Earth and have a significant impact on the electrical infrastructure, and it also wasn't the largest so far uncovered.
    Do you have any links to info on the larger ones?
    Nana to two "little bits", one not-so-little "little bit" and one 6' college bound "little bit"

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lilbitsnana View Post
    Do you have any links to info on the larger ones?
    Here's what I posted in the "WAITING FOR THE NEXT CARRINGTON EVENT" thread (http://www.timebomb2000.com/vb/showt...RRINGTON-EVENT) - the one I was referring to was in 774–775 AD, although of course the evidence for that one had to be found elsewhere than impacting any electrical infrastructure:

    -----

    2005/01/20-Solar activity released the highest concentration of protons ever directly measured

    2003/11/04-Halloween Solar Storm series, solar flare rated X28 but some researchers calculated it could have been as high as X45, even at X28 it was the biggest solar flare ever recorded but fortunately it only indirectly affected Earth, before it was over x-rays overloaded the detectors on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), a one hour power outage occurred in Sweden as a direct result of the solar activity, the Ulysses (near Jupiter), Cassini (approaching Saturn), and Voyager-2 (so far out it took until April 2004 for the energy to reach it) spacecraft all detected the storm, at least one of the solar storms in the series was compared by some scientists in its intensity to the Carrington Event, researchers from the University of Otago/New Zealand used an indirect method of radio wave-based measurements of the x-rays' effects on the Earth's upper atmosphere to revise the flare's size from a merely huge X28 to a "whopping" X45, the solar flare that knocked Quebec's electrical grid out in August 1989 was "only" a X15-X20 ("minimum Dst values were -151, -353 and -383 nT" - Wikipedia)

    2001/04/03-Solar flare rated X20, the same intensity as the flare that took out Quebec's electrical grid in August 1989

    2000/07/14-Bastille Day Solar Storm, solar flare rated X5.7, geomagnetic super storm occurred on July 15–17, despite the storm's strength no power distribution failures were reported, this was observed by Voyager-1 and Voyager-2, this was the biggest solar radiation event since the 1989/03/13 Quebec blackout, the proton event was four times more intense than any previously recorded since the launches of SOHO in 1995 and ACE in 1997 ("the minimum of the Dst index was -301 nT" - Wikipedia)

    1989/08/16-Solar flare rated X20, this tied 2001/04/02 as the biggest solar flares on record prior to the X28/X45 event on 2003/11/04

    1989/03/13-Solar storm rated X15-X20 knocked out Quebec's hydroelectric system and blacked out the entire province for twelve hours and affecting six million people, the Northern Lights were seen as far south as Texas and Cuba, Australian UN troops in Namibia had severe problems with their communications (which depended on HF radio communications), four of the Navy's navigational satellites had to be taken out of service for up to a week ("The minimum of Dst was -589 nT." - Wikipedia)

    1921/05/15-Immense solar storm, produced ground currents as much as ten times stronger than the 1989/03/13 Quebec storm, auroras were seen Pasadena/CA and in the eastern US, strongly affected New York state and Europe, ended all communications traffic from the Atlantic Coast to the Mississippi ("The study said a future solar storm like the great magnetic storm of May 1921 would black out most states east of the Mississippi River along with most states in the Pacific Northwest.") ("According to a study by Metatech corporation, a storm with a strength comparable to that of 1921 would destroy more than 300 transformers and leave over 130 million people without power in the United States, costing several trillion dollars.")

    1882/11/17-Geomagnetic storm lasted from November 11-26, knocked out some telegraph lines and started a few fires

    1859/09/03-Carrington Event, immense solar storm shorted out telegraph wires in the US and in Europe and aurora were seen as far south as Rome, Hawaii (about 20 degrees N), and Cuba, auroras over the Rocky Mountains were so bright, the glow woke campers who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning, estimated to be three times the size [also saw as ten times the size] of the 1989/03/13 Quebec solar storm and 50% or more stronger than the superstorm of May 1921, estimated at 200 nT (nano-Teslas) in strength ("The horizontal field was reduced by 1600 nT as recorded by the Colaba Observatory. It is estimated that Dst would have been approximately -1760 nT. - Wikipedia"

    0993-0994-"The 993–994 carbon-14 spike was a rapid increase in carbon-14 content from tree rings, and followed the 774–775 carbon-14 spike. This event is also confirmed by a sharp increase of beryllium-10 and hence considered as solar-origin. It may have come from a massive solar storm as a series of auroral observations are known to be observed in late 992."

    0774–0775-"The common paradigm is that the event was caused by a solar particle event (SPE), or a consequences of events as often happen, from a very strong solar flare, perhaps the strongest ever known, but still within the Sun's abilities." / "The event of 774 is the strongest spike over the last 11,000 years in the record of cosmogenic isotopes."

  11. #11
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    thanks
    Nana to two "little bits", one not-so-little "little bit" and one 6' college bound "little bit"

  12. #12
    Gill kayaker witnesses eruption in Conn. River

    Mysterious mass erupted from the Connecticut River.

    By MAX MARCUS
    Recorder Staff
    Thursday, July 12, 2018 TURNERS FALLS MA GILL MA
    GILL — A Gill woman’s afternoon kayak ride in the Connecticut River recently was interrupted by what she described as an explosion in the water.

    Alison Perry was kayaking upriver in Barton Cove, by Hillside Avenue in Turners Falls on June 26, when a fountain of water about three feet high and two feet wide erupted in front of her kayak, “spewing” a black tar-like substance.

    “It just exploded right in front of me. Within 10 feet. It was so close. … If I had paddled one more, it would have thrown me up in the air,” Perry said. “One more paddle and God knows what would have happened.”

    The fountain went on “long enough that I could think different thoughts about it,” Perry said. She guessed that it lasted about 40 seconds.

    “All I kept thinking was, ‘My God, I can’t believe how close I am to this. Right in front of me. This is so bizarre.’”


    The water and the tar-like substance did not have a specific smell and were not hot, Perry said.

    After the fountain ended, it was followed by a plume of white foam that lasted “a split second,” Perry said. The tar-like substance stuck together in a floating island about 5 to 6 feet long and 2 feet wide, she said, which after a few minutes broke into smaller chunks that floated apart.

    When she poked the chunk with her paddle, Perry said, it was clay-like in its consistency — hard enough to keep its shape, but not as hard as a rock.

    “It was only a couple minutes later that I took pictures of it,” Perry said. “And by then they were drifting away from me. … I wish I had stayed and taken more pictures, but I just wanted to get out of there.”

    Perry wasn’t sure what could produce such a phenomenon. A friend who knows a geologist told her that there is a fault line that runs from the French King Bridge in Northfield under the Connecticut River.

    “That is really strange and I have never heard of anything like it,” said Richard Little, a professor emeritus of geology at Greenfield Community College. “It is probably something organic, buried and decomposing beneath the river bed.”




    http://www.recorder.com/Gill-woman-s...river-18748683
    Last edited by danielboon; 07-17-2018 at 10:01 AM.

  13. #13
    This part of the river is about 130 ft deep and divers have seen sturgeon that cast a shadow over them.there was volcanic activity in the area thousands of years ago. Must be waking up

  14. #14
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    Quote Originally Posted by danielboon View Post
    This part of the river is about 130 ft deep and divers have seen sturgeon that cast a shadow over them.there was volcanic activity in the area thousands of years ago. Must be waking up
    That seemed very deep to me but Wikipedia totally backs it up. Plus the fact that huge log drives used to take place on the river supports the idea that something organic was decaying and popped to the surface.

    "Starting about 1865,[35] the river was used for massive logging drives ... In the Middle Connecticut region, the river reaches its maximum depth – 130 feet (40 m) – at Gill, Massachusetts." (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connecticut_River)

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