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SCI Scientists Finally Answer The Important Question, Are Cats a Liquid?
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  1. #1
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    Scientists Finally Answer The Important Question, Are Cats a Liquid?

    http://www.sciencealert.com/are-cats...enceNaturePage



    Scientists Finally Answer The Important Question, Are Cats a Liquid?
    The study won the 2017 Ig Nobel Prize in Physics.

    MARC-ANTOINE FARDIN,
    THE CONVERSATION
    11 NOV 2017

    A liquid is traditionally defined as a material that adapts its shape to fit a container. Yet under certain conditions, cats seem to fit this definition.

    This somewhat paradoxical observation emerged on the web a few years ago and joined the long list of internet memes involving our feline friends. When I first saw this question it made me laugh, and then think.


    I decided to reformulate it to illustrate some problems at the heart of rheology, the study of the deformations and flows of matter. My study on the rheology of cats won the 2017 Ig Nobel Prize in Physics.

    The prizes are awarded every year by Improbable Research, an organisation devoted to science and humour. The goal is to highlight scientific studies that first make people laugh, then think. A ceremony is held every year at Harvard University.

    What is a liquid?

    At the center of the definition of a liquid is an action: A material must be able to modify its form to fit within a container. The action must also have a characteristic duration.

    In rheology this is called the relaxation time. Determining if something is liquid depends on whether it's observed over a time period that's shorter or longer than the relaxation time.

    If we take cats as our example, the fact is that they can adapt their shape to their container if we give them enough time. Cats are thus liquid if we give them the time to become liquid.


    In rheology, the state of a material is not really a fixed property – what must be measured is the relaxation time. What is its value and on what does it depend? For example, does the relaxation time of a cat vary with its age? (In rheology we speak of thixotropy.)

    Could the type of container be a factor? (In rheology this is studied in "wetting" problems.) Or does it vary with the cat's degree of stress? (One speaks of "shear thickening" if the relaxation time increases with stress, or "shear thinning" if the opposite is true.)

    Of course, we mean stress in the mechanical sense rather than emotional, but the two meanings may overlap in some cases.

    The 'Deborah number' and the flow of mountains

    What cats show clearly is that determining the state of a material requires comparing two time periods: the relaxation time and the experimental time, which is the time elapsed since the onset of deformation initiated by the container.

    For instance, it may be the time elapsed since the cat stepped into a sink. Conventionally, one divides the relaxation time by the experimental time, and if the result is more than 1, the material is relatively solid; if the result is lower than 1, the material is relatively liquid.

    This is referred to as the Deborah number, after the biblical priestess who remarked that on geological time scales ("before God") even mountains flowed. On shorter time scales one can see glaciers progressively flowing down valleys.

    Even if the relaxation time is very large (days, years), the behaviour can be that of a liquid if the Deborah number is small (compared to 1).

    Conversely, even if the relaxation time is very small (milliseconds), the behaviour can be that of a solid if the Deborah number is large (compared to 1). This is the case if one observes a water balloon at the instant when it's popped.

    The Deborah number is an example of dimensionless number: Since we divide one time period by another, the ratio does not have any unit. In rheology, and in science more generally, there are many dimensionless numbers that can be used to determine the state or regime of a material or system.

    Measuring the speed of cake batter

    For liquids there is another dimensionless number that can be used to estimate whether the flow will be turbulent, with vortices, or whether it will calmly follow the outline of the container (we say that the flow is laminar).

    If the flow speed is V and the container has a typical size h perpendicular to the flow, then we can define the velocity gradient V/h. The inverse of this velocity gradient scales as a time.

    Comparing this duration and the relaxation time produces the Reynolds number in the case of fluids dominated by inertia (like water), or the Weissenberg number for those dominated by elasticity (like cake batter).

    If these dimensionless numbers are large in comparison to 1, then the flow is likely to be turbulent. If they're small in comparison to 1 the flow is likely to be laminar.

    The Conversation
    Asking the question of whether cats were a liquid allowed me to illustrate the use of these dimensionless numbers in rheology. I hope that it will make people laugh and then think.

    Marc-Antoine Fardin, Chercheur en rhéologie, Université Paris Diderot – USPC.

    This article was originally published by The Conversation. Read the original article.

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    And the Ig Nobel Goes to...
    GenomeWeb
    Last edited by NC Susan; 11-15-2017 at 02:44 AM.

  2. #2
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    With the right Blender anything can be a liquid.
    "It ain't no secret I didn't get these scars falling over in church."


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  3. #3
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    How many did they have to microwave before they figured it out

  4. #4
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    And yet, GLASS is considered a VERY SLOW moving liquid...
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    Not only can cats assume any of the four states of matter, they can also seek out gravity anomalies, levitate to the tops of furniture, and attain speeds that would leave a tachyon panting in its dust.
    Let's not forget time travel and remote seeing.
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
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  6. #6
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    Cats are alien life forms.
    The wonder of our time isn’t how angry we are at politics and politicians; it’s how little we’ve done about it. - Fran Porretto
    -http://bastionofliberty.blogspot.com/2016/10/a-wholly-rational-hatred.html

  7. #7
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    Quote Originally Posted by night driver View Post
    And yet, GLASS is considered a VERY SLOW moving liquid...
    A common myth, but not true.
    That idea, even with some claimed evidence about windows being thicker at their base after hundreds of years is just not true.
    Google it and you will see.
    The myth is somehow appealing to many, so it keeps popping up.
    "I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself. A small bird will drop frozen dead from a bough without ever having felt sorry for itself." -DH Lawrence
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  8. #8
    My HS chemistry teacher described glass as amorphous, not crystalline.
    He did say that a glass rod hung horizontally from two ends would eventually sag in the middle.

  9. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by Dozdoats View Post
    Cats are alien life forms.
    and they are trying to take over the earth

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Satanta View Post
    With the right Blender anything can be a liquid.
    Well, not rocks.

  11. #11
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dennis Olson View Post
    Well, not rocks.
    You don't have the right Blender
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
    Razor sharpening while you wait - Occam
    If it works, it doesn't have enough features. - Windows 10 design philosophy.
    Forget the beer, I'm just here for the doom!
    Humans, just a tool for amino acids to make Swiss watches.

  12. #12
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    Something with a diamond cutting blade and powered by a 400 hemi?

  13. #13
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dennis Olson View Post
    Well, not rocks.
    My granddaughter came up with a knife in a blender -- you would get shards of metal and plastic, rather than a liquid (unless a lot of heat was also applied).

    Kathleen
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  14. #14
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    Quote Originally Posted by Profit of Doom View Post
    You don't have the right Blender
    You beat me to that most excellent answer.
    Your levity is good, it relieves tension and the fear of death.

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  15. #15
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    Duh..............

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    Cats come from an alternate universe, where they are liquid and hoomans are the lesser species.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Profit of Doom View Post
    Not only can cats assume any of the four states of matter, they can also seek out gravity anomalies, levitate to the tops of furniture, and attain speeds that would leave a tachyon panting in its dust.
    Let's not forget time travel and remote seeing.
    I swear right before he crossed the bridge The Fat Man gave up on all pretenses and was walking through walls and the ceilings on the first and second levels of this house! As slow as he was moving it's the ONLY thing that can explain how he beat me to the second floor bathroom when I had left him in the kitchen to eat his food.
    People are quick to confuse and despise confidence as arrogance but that is common amongst those who have never accomplished anything in their lives and who have always played it safe not willing to risk failure.

  18. #18
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    What... He was chanelling Heinlein's Pixel??
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    Gentle reminder: It is entirely possible to think that generalizations are true and to judge each real live person you meet as an individual

  19. #19
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    Quote Originally Posted by night driver View Post
    What... He was chanelling Heinlein's Pixel??
    Must have been, it was odd and I wasn't the only one who noticed this happening.
    People are quick to confuse and despise confidence as arrogance but that is common amongst those who have never accomplished anything in their lives and who have always played it safe not willing to risk failure.

  20. #20
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    Still watching........

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  21. #21
    Quote Originally Posted by night driver View Post
    And yet, GLASS is considered a VERY SLOW moving liquid...
    Correct.

    If you want to see the science of "liquid" glass in action, take a tour of Colonial Williamsburg, VA and notice how the original panes of glass in some of the windows are fairly DRIPPING downwards, towards the bottom of the pane - interesting.


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  22. #22
    Quote Originally Posted by TerryK View Post
    A common myth, but not true.
    That idea, even with some claimed evidence about windows being thicker at their base after hundreds of years is just not true.
    Google it and you will see.
    The myth is somehow appealing to many, so it keeps popping up.
    Got a link?


    intothegoodnight
    "Do not go gentle into that good night.
    Rage, rage against the dying of the light."

    — Dylan Thomas, "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night"

  23. #23
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    Quote Originally Posted by packyderms_wife View Post
    I swear right before he crossed the bridge The Fat Man gave up on all pretenses and was walking through walls and the ceilings on the first and second levels of this house! As slow as he was moving it's the ONLY thing that can explain how he beat me to the second floor bathroom when I had left him in the kitchen to eat his food.
    I believe you, pw - I've got one (living) that can materialize (and dematerialize) upon calling its name. It is nowhere, then somewhere - right in front of us!!!
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  24. #24
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    Confirmed! - Cats are liquid!

    until you ask them to do something - then they become solid

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    Quote Originally Posted by night driver View Post
    And yet, GLASS is considered a VERY SLOW moving liquid...
    No, glass unheated is in its frozen state (think ice). Once it gets warm enough, it changes to its liquid state.

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    Quote Originally Posted by intothatgoodnight View Post
    Correct.

    If you want to see the science of "liquid" glass in action, take a tour of Colonial Williamsburg, VA and notice how the original panes of glass in some of the windows are fairly DRIPPING downwards, towards the bottom of the pane - interesting.


    intothegoodnight
    I would think it more likely the old glassmaking methods.
    Blowing a large cylinder of glass, cutting the side open and flattening it won't give you the smooth surface of glass formed on a bath of molten tin.
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
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  27. #27
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    Quote Originally Posted by packyderms_wife View Post
    I swear right before he crossed the bridge The Fat Man gave up on all pretenses and was walking through walls and the ceilings on the first and second levels of this house! As slow as he was moving it's the ONLY thing that can explain how he beat me to the second floor bathroom when I had left him in the kitchen to eat his food.
    Remember the ancient Egyptians worshipped cats as gods...
    There must have been a reason.
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
    Razor sharpening while you wait - Occam
    If it works, it doesn't have enough features. - Windows 10 design philosophy.
    Forget the beer, I'm just here for the doom!
    Humans, just a tool for amino acids to make Swiss watches.

  28. #28
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    We have had several who can detect micro particles of Neutronium in sidewalks. They will be walking just fine, then fall over, writhe around, and require a human to pull them out of the singularity.
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
    Razor sharpening while you wait - Occam
    If it works, it doesn't have enough features. - Windows 10 design philosophy.
    Forget the beer, I'm just here for the doom!
    Humans, just a tool for amino acids to make Swiss watches.

  29. #29
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    At the quantum level aren't we (humans) all states at the same time too?

    Anyway, it interesting that cats continue to be one of the primary species involved in quantum physics thought experiments. Is Schrodinger's cat dead or alive? Yes
    "Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable."
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  30. #30
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dex View Post
    At the quantum level aren't we (humans) all states at the same time too?

    Anyway, it interesting that cats continue to be one of the primary species involved in quantum physics thought experiments. Is Schrodinger's cat dead or alive? Yes
    You do realize the cats are the ones running the experiments? Them letting us think we are in charge is just another experiment. Their success in breeding us for opposable thumbs was so successful they are now trying to increase our intellect enough to be of some use beyond opening cat food cans.
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
    Razor sharpening while you wait - Occam
    If it works, it doesn't have enough features. - Windows 10 design philosophy.
    Forget the beer, I'm just here for the doom!
    Humans, just a tool for amino acids to make Swiss watches.

  31. #31
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    Quote Originally Posted by Profit of Doom View Post
    Remember the ancient Egyptians worshipped cats as gods...
    There must have been a reason.
    Yes, because the cats ordered them to...


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    Quote Originally Posted by Profit of Doom View Post
    We have had several who can detect micro particles of Neutronium in sidewalks. They will be walking just fine, then fall over, writhe around, and require a human to pull them out of the singularity.

    Warp engines not providing enough power?

  33. #33
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    I know Profit, I don't think my robotic liter box is quite satisfactory for my cat, she wants a robotic food provider as well. I continue to find ways to automate and reduce my indentured service but the cat continues to find ways to reel me back in. She insists that I still man the HVAC even though she has access to the space heater, she acts like she doesn't know how to turn it on but I know it's just a ploy.

    Did you ever hear of The Cat Who Walks Thru Walls? I think it goes beyond liquid state and they can assume gaseous as well.
    "Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable."
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  34. #34
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    " She insists that I still man the HVAC even though she has access to the space heater, she acts like she doesn't know how to turn it on but I know it's just a ploy."

    You are lucky she cares enough of your mental well-being that she gives you tasks to instill a sense of purpose to your human existence. You should worship her for that.
    "...Cry 'Havoc' and let slip the cats of war..."
    Razor sharpening while you wait - Occam
    If it works, it doesn't have enough features. - Windows 10 design philosophy.
    Forget the beer, I'm just here for the doom!
    Humans, just a tool for amino acids to make Swiss watches.

  35. #35
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    Dang, you are right!
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  36. #36
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    Quote Originally Posted by intothatgoodnight View Post
    Correct.

    If you want to see the science of "liquid" glass in action, take a tour of Colonial Williamsburg, VA and notice how the original panes of glass in some of the windows are fairly DRIPPING downwards, towards the bottom of the pane - interesting.


    intothegoodnight
    Quote Originally Posted by Faroe View Post
    My HS chemistry teacher described glass as amorphous, not crystalline.
    He did say that a glass rod hung horizontally from two ends would eventually sag in the middle.
    Again, it is a common misconception and held by many people. An iron rod held by the ends would also eventually sag.
    Several old methods of making glass for windows caused people to think glass was a liquid, but it is not. It is a solid once it cools and stops flowing.
    Hundreds of years ago glass windows in churches etc were made by glass blowers and would always be of uneven thickness. The thick part was usually placed at the bottom to help seal against water intrusion.
    Later molten glass was poured onto large tables to solidify. It did but the thickness was not constant. It was thicker near the middle where the pour happened.
    The only time we have really close to flat glass plate is when it is made with the float process.
    Read the article below, or google it and check the physics department of any good college. High school science teachers from decades ago used to believe the myth, and many historical sites, especially in Europe in the case of thousand year old churches still propagate the myth, but by now many of these tourist sites have corrected themselves.
    Here from Wikipedia
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass
    Behavior of antique glass

    The observation that old windows are sometimes found to be thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a timescale of centuries, the assumption being that the glass has exhibited the liquid property of flowing from one shape to another.[161] This assumption is incorrect, as once solidified, glass stops flowing. The reason for the observation is that in the past, when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, the technique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat and even plate (the crown glass process, described above). This plate was then cut to fit a window. The pieces were not absolutely flat; the edges of the disk became a different thickness as the glass spun. When installed in a window frame, the glass would be placed with the thicker side down both for the sake of stability and to prevent water accumulating in the lead cames at the bottom of the window.[162] Occasionally, such glass has been found installed with the thicker side at the top, left or right.[163]
    Mass production of glass window panes in the early twentieth century caused a similar effect. In glass factories, molten glass was poured onto a large cooling table and allowed to spread. The resulting glass is thicker at the location of the pour, located at the center of the large sheet. These sheets were cut into smaller window panes with nonuniform thickness, typically with the location of the pour centered in one of the panes (known as "bull's-eyes") for decorative effect. Modern glass intended for windows is produced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness.
    Several other points can be considered that contradict the "cathedral glass flow" theory:
    • Writing in the American Journal of Physics, the materials engineer Edgar D. Zanotto states "... the predicted relaxation time for GeO2 at room temperature is 1032 years. Hence, the relaxation period (characteristic flow time) of cathedral glasses would be even longer."[164] (1032 years is many times longer than the estimated age of the universe.)
    • If medieval glass has flowed perceptibly, then ancient Roman and Egyptian objects should have flowed proportionately more—but this is not observed. Similarly, prehistoric obsidian blades should have lost their edge; this is not observed either (although obsidian may have a different viscosity from window glass).[155]
    • If glass flows at a rate that allows changes to be seen with the naked eye after centuries, then the effect should be noticeable in antique telescopes. Any slight deformation in the antique telescopic lenses would lead to a dramatic decrease in optical performance, a phenomenon that is not observed.[15


    Finally from the Corning Museum of Glass
    https://www.cmog.org/article/does-glass-flow

    Does Glass Flow?




    (No, It Doesn't Flow—read on for details)
    Early one spring morning in 1946, Clarence Hoke was holding forth in his chemistry class at West Side High School in Newark, New Jersey. "Glass is actually a liquid." the North Carolina native told us in his soft Southern tones. "You can tell that from the stained glass windows in old cathedrals in Europe. The glass is thicker on the bottom than it is on the top." Now, more than half a century later, that is the only thing I can actually remember being taught in high school chemistry. I didn't really believe it then, and I don't believe it now. In the years that followed, I came across the same story every now and then. Most often it popped up in college textbooks on general chemistry. And now, thanks to the Internet, our Museum has received dozens of inquiries about whether or not this is true. Most people seem to want to believe it.
    Glass Is a Liquid, and Naturally Flows, Right?Top

    It is easy to understand why the myth persists. It does have a certain appeal. Glass and the glassy state are often described by noting their similarities with liquids. So good teachers, such as Mr. Hoke was, like to quote the story about the windows. As is the case with liquids, the atoms making up a glass are not arranged in any regular order—and that is where the analogy arises. Liquids flow because there are no strong forces holding their molecules together. Their molecules can move freely past one another, so that liquids can be poured, splashed around, and spilled. But, unlike the molecules in conventional liquids, the atoms in glasses are all held together tightly by strong chemical bonds. It is as if the glass were one giant molecule. This makes glasses rigid so they cannot flow at room temperatures. Thus, the analogy fails in the case of fluidity and flow.
    Why the Myth Doesn't Make SenseTop

    There are at least four or five reasons why the myth doesn't make sense.
    Glass crown disk with panes laid out.
    Some years ago, I heard a remark attributed to Egon Orowan of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Orowan had quipped that there might, indeed, be some truth to the story about glass flowing. Half of the pieces in a window are thicker at the bottom, he said, but, he added quickly, the other half are thicker at the top. My own experience has been that for earlier windows especially, there is sometimes a pronounced variation in thickness over a distance of an inch or two on individual fragments. That squares with the experience of conservators and curators who have handled hundreds of panels. Although the individual pieces of glass in a window may be uneven in thickness, and noticeably wavy, these effects result simply from the way the glasses were made. Presumably, that would have been by some precursor or variant of the crown or cylinder methods.
    One also wonders why this alleged thickening is confined to the glass in cathedral windows. Why don't we find that Egyptian cored vessels or Hellenistic and Roman bowls have sagged and become misshapen after lying for centuries in tombs or in the ground? Those glasses are 1,000–2,500 years older than the cathedral windows.
    Speaking of time, just how long should it take—theoretically—for windows to thicken to any observable extent? Many years ago, Dr. Chuck Kurkjian told me that an acquaintance of his had estimated how fast—actually, how slowly—glasses would flow. The calculation showed that if a plate of glass a meter tall and a centimeter thick was placed in an upright position at room temperature, the time required for the glass to flow down so as to thicken 10 angstrom units at the bottom (a change the size of only a few atoms) would theoretically be about the same as the age of the universe: close to ten billion years. Similar calculations, made more recently, lead to similar conclusions. But such computations are perhaps only fanciful. It is questionable that the equations used to calculate rates of flow are really applicable to the situation at hand.
    ViscosityTop

    This brings us to the subject of viscosity. The viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its resistance to flow—the opposite of fluidity. Viscosities are expressed in units called poises. At room temperature, the viscosity of water, which flows readily, is about 0.01 poise. Molasses has a viscosity of about 500 poises and flows like ... molasses. A piece of once proud Brie, left out on the table after all the guests have departed, may be found to have flowed out of its rind into a rounded mass. In this sad state, its viscosity, as a guess, would be about 500,000 poises.
    In the world of viscosity, things can get rather sticky. At elevated temperatures, the viscosities of glasses can be measured, and much practical use is made of such measurements. Upon removal from a furnace, ordinary glasses have a consistency that changes gradually from that of a thick house paint to that of putty, and then to that of saltwater taffy being pulled on one of those machines you see on a boardwalk. To have a taffy-like viscosity, the glass would still have to be very hot and would probably glow with a dull red color.
    At somewhat cooler temperatures, pieces of glass will still sag slowly under their own weight, and if they have sharp edges, those will become rounded. So, too, will bubbles trapped in the glass slowly turn to spheres because of surface tension. All this happens when the viscosity is on the order of 50,000,000 poises, and the glasses are near what we call their softening points.
    Below those temperatures, glasses have pretty well set up, and by the time they have cooled to room temperature, they have, of course, become rigid. Estimates of the viscosity of glasses at room temperature run as high as 10 to the 20th power (1020), that is to say, something like 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 poises. (Terry: That is close to the viscosity of granite) Scientists and engineers may argue about the exact value of that number, but it is doubtful that there is any real physical significance to a viscosity as great as that anyway. As for cathedral windows, it is hard to believe that anything that viscous is going to flow at all.
    It is worth noting, too, that at room temperature the viscosity of metallic lead has been estimated to be about 10 to the 11th power, (1011) poises, that is, perhaps a billion times less viscous—or a billion times more fluid, if you prefer—than glass. Presumably, then, the lead caming that holds stained glass pieces in place should have flowed a billion times more readily than the glass. While lead caming often bends and buckles under the enormous architectural stresses imposed on it, one never hears that the lead has flowed like a liquid.
    Glass Doesn't FlowTop

    When all is said and done, the story about stained glass windows flowing—just because glasses have certain liquid-like characteristics—is an appealing notion, but in reality it just isn't so.
    Thinking back, I do recall another memorable remark by Mr. Hoke. One day, our self‑appointed class clown sat senselessly pounding a book on his desk at the back of the room. "Great day in the mawnin', son!" shouted Hoke "Stop slammin' your book on the desk. Use your head!" That was good advice—no matter how you read it.
    Dr. Robert Brill
    "I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself. A small bird will drop frozen dead from a bough without ever having felt sorry for itself." -DH Lawrence
    People are crazy and times are strange
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    I used to care, but things have changed

  37. #37
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    you know the whole need to prove that glass does this or that could have gone into another thread... just saying.
    People are quick to confuse and despise confidence as arrogance but that is common amongst those who have never accomplished anything in their lives and who have always played it safe not willing to risk failure.

  38. #38
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    Quote Originally Posted by packyderms_wife View Post
    you know the whole need to prove that glass does this or that could have gone into another thread... just saying.
    Never underestimate the staying power of any thread about cats - nor the direction it may take in a vain attempt to ignore The Cat! It will always find a way to get back [to cats].
    Last edited by Seeker; 11-15-2017 at 11:26 PM.
    The real art of conversation is not only to say the right thing at the right time, but also to leave unsaid the wrong thing at the tempting moment.

    Worrying does not take away tomorrow's troubles, it takes away today's peace .

  39. #39
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    Dr. Schambaugh, of the University of Oklahoma School of Chemical Engineering, Final Exam question for May of 1997.

    Dr. Schambaugh is known for asking questions such as, "why do airplanes fly?" on his final exams. His one and only final exam question in May 1997 for his Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer II class was: "Is hell exothermic or endothermic? Support your answer with proof."

    Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyle's Law or some variant. One student, however, wrote the following:

    "First, We postulate that if souls exist, then they must have some mass. If they do, then a mole of souls can also have a mass. So, at what rate are souls moving into hell and at what rate are souls leaving? I think we can safely assume that once a soul gets to hell, it will not leave.

    Therefore, no souls are leaving. As for souls entering hell, let's look at the different religions that exist in the world today. Some of these religions state that if you are not a member of their religion, then you will go to hell. Since there are more than one of these religions and people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all people and souls go to hell. With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in hell to increase exponentially.

    Now, we look at the rate of change in volume in hell. Boyle's Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in hell to stay the same, the ratio of the mass of souls and volume needs to stay constant. Two options exist:

    1 - If hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter hell, then the temperature and pressure in hell will increase until all hell breaks loose.

    2 - If hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until hell freezes over.

    So which is it? If we accept the quote given to me by Theresa Manyan during Freshman year, "that it will be a cold night in hell before I sleep with you" and take into account the fact that I still have NOT succeeded in having sexual relations with her, then Option 2 cannot be true...Thus, hell is exothermic."

    The student, Tim Graham, got the only A.

    http://www.pinetree.net/humor/thermodynamics.html

  40. #40
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dennis Olson View Post
    Dr. Schambaugh, of the University of Oklahoma School of Chemical Engineering, Final Exam question for May of 1997.

    Dr. Schambaugh is known for asking questions such as, "why do airplanes fly?" on his final exams. His one and only final exam question in May 1997 for his Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer II class was: "Is hell exothermic or endothermic? Support your answer with proof."

    Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyle's Law or some variant. One student, however, wrote the following:

    "First, We postulate that if souls exist, then they must have some mass. If they do, then a mole of souls can also have a mass. So, at what rate are souls moving into hell and at what rate are souls leaving? I think we can safely assume that once a soul gets to hell, it will not leave.

    Therefore, no souls are leaving. As for souls entering hell, let's look at the different religions that exist in the world today. Some of these religions state that if you are not a member of their religion, then you will go to hell. Since there are more than one of these religions and people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all people and souls go to hell. With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in hell to increase exponentially.

    Now, we look at the rate of change in volume in hell. Boyle's Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in hell to stay the same, the ratio of the mass of souls and volume needs to stay constant. Two options exist:

    1 - If hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter hell, then the temperature and pressure in hell will increase until all hell breaks loose.

    2 - If hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until hell freezes over.

    So which is it? If we accept the quote given to me by Theresa Manyan during Freshman year, "that it will be a cold night in hell before I sleep with you" and take into account the fact that I still have NOT succeeded in having sexual relations with her, then Option 2 cannot be true...Thus, hell is exothermic."

    The student, Tim Graham, got the only A.

    http://www.pinetree.net/humor/thermodynamics.html
    No cats were harmed in the writing of this post.
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